Parts of Speech: In the grammatical era every single word we use in a sentence is called a Parts of Speech. As an example, we can write Karim is a good boy, He goes to school, and Ashik eats Rice. And here-
The first sentence Karim, is, a, good, and boy are each parts of speech.
In the same way, in sentence 2, he, goes, to, school, etc., each is a separate Parts of Speech.
Sentence No. 3 has a total of three words. So this sentence has three parts of speech too.
What is Parts of Speech?
Every single Word is considered the smallest and most important part of a sentence. And these words are divided into different classes, called parts of speech. Words are divided into different categories based on their use and function in sentences. Each word of the sentence is called Parts of Speech. For example, we can write Do not run in the sun, Walking is the best exercise, He went to school. Here you can see each word used in these sentences is called Parts of Speech.
Note: One thing to remember is that the words must be part of some sentence. Separately, no word can be called part of speech. That is, all parts of speech are words, but not all words are parts of speech. Parts of Speech means part of the sentence. The word cannot be called Parts of Speech until it is used in a sentence. The examples are given below.
- If I say water then it will not be a parts of speech. Because it is not part of a sentence. Just a completely different word.
- But if I say Water is life then Water will be a Parts of Speech. Because, here water is a part of the sentence.
What are the types of Parts of Speech?
According to functions in one sentence, there are eight types of parts of speech.
What is a noun?
The word in a sentence that expresses the name of something is called a noun. What we see in front of our eyes is called a noun (Parts of speech). The noun refers to the name of a person, object, animal, place, event, etc. The noun refers to any kind of name. The examples are given below.
- Karim does not like to go to school. (Karim is a person’s name in this sentence)
- Kuwait is a Muslim country. (Here Kuwait is the name of a country)
- Diamond is very valuable. (Diamond is the name of an object)
Nouns are classified into five types. These are-
- Proper Noun: A noun that is used to name something is called a proper noun. Nominative nouns are used to refer to persons, things, places, days, months, seasons, etc.
- Examples: Rahim, Nitu, Dhaka, Amazon, Mercedes, Ford, Facebook, Titanic, Sunday, December, Summer, etc.
Common Noun: When a Noun does not specify any person, object, or animal of the same type, it is called a Common Noun. For example, Boy, Girl, Student, City, Book, Dog, Flower, etc.
Example: Shamima is a student. ( Student means all students. No specific student is understood separately)
Collective Noun: Nouns that refer to groups or groups of people, things, or animals are called Collective Nouns.
Example: A band of musicians, A convoy of trucks, A flock of birds
Material Noun: A noun that refers to all parts of a substance and does not refer to any part or part of it is called a material noun. The material noun refers to something that cannot be counted by number but can be measured in some other way (Parts of Speech).
Example: gold, zinc, iron, oil, water, salt
Abstract Noun: Nouns that refer to a person, thing, place, idea, feeling, or feature that is not perceptible are called Abstract nouns or Adjective Nouns. That is, these nouns are used to express characteristics, qualities, and conditions that cannot be seen, heard, touched, smelled, or tasted.
Examples: Freedom, Love, Belief, Anger, Pleasure, etc.
What is a pronoun?
Simply put, any word we substitute for a noun is called a Pronoun. For example, He, She, We, etc.
That means the word which we use instead of a Noun is called a Pronoun. The Examples are given below.
- Karim is a good boy. (Here Karim is a Noun).
- He goes to school every day.
- We should take care of our children.
The examples above are about a boy named Karim. The first time his name is used as Karim, the next time his name appears, He can be used as a pronoun instead of his name. Likewise, a Pronoun should be placed according to the gender and number of different types of Nouns.
How many types of pronouns are there?
There are several different kinds of pronouns. These are given below.
Personal pronouns: Personal pronouns refer to a specific person, object, or group.
- I love bananas (I am the pronoun here).
Demonstrative pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns come before a noun and specify that noun. They usually function more as adjectives. But when the noun is implied, they are called demonstrative pronouns.
- Should I bring those? (Those are the pronoun here)
Interrogative pronouns: Pronouns that are used to ask questions are called interrogative pronouns.
- Who is your friend? (Who is the pronoun here)
Possessive pronouns: Possessive adjectives (my, our, their, his, her, its) are possessive pronouns that are used instead of nouns to indicate ownership or rights.
It is my dog, not his. (He is the pronoun here)
Relative pronouns: Relative pronouns are used to add new information about a noun within a sentence.
The man who is wearing a black sun-glass is my uncle. (Who is the pronoun here)
Reflexive pronouns: If the subject and object are the same person or object, reflexive pronouns should be used. Reflexive pronouns reflect the subject as an object.
He killed himself. (Himself is the pronoun here)
Intensive pronouns: Pronouns that are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun are called intensive pronouns. Reflexive pronoun and intensive pronoun look similar but the intensive pronoun is not used as an object in the sentence.
I wash my clothes myself. (Myself is the pronoun here)
What is Adjective?
All the words that express the fault, quality, number, quantity, or condition of a Noun or Pronoun in a sentence are called Adjectives. Adjectives qualify only Nouns and Pronouns. The examples are given below.
- Naira is a beautiful girl (Here means the quality of Noun).
- He has three red pens. (Noun means number).
- Safi is a bad boy (Noun means state).
How many types of adjectives are there?
Adjectives are mainly of four types
Descriptive Adjective/Adjective of Quality: They express the defect, quality, or state of a Noun or Pronoun. Some Quality Adjectives are Beautiful, nice, wonderful, red, happy, late, great, foolish, loose, small, polite, smart, rich, brave, generous, etc. Examples are below.
- She Is Polite (Here Polite is a Descriptive Adjective).
- A beautiful place (Here Place is a Descriptive Adjective).
Qualitative Adjective/Adjective of Quantity: All the words/Words that express the amount of Noun or Pronoun are called Adjectives of Quantity.
Examples are below.
- Did you have enough food (Here Enough is Qualitative Adjective)?
- Karim does not need much money (Here Much is a Qualitative Adjective).
Numeral Adjective/Adjective of Number: All the words/Words that express the number, place/sequence, or stage of Noun or Pronoun are called Adjectives of Number. Examples are below.
- Raju bought five apples (Here Five is a Numeral Adjective).
- The second place goes to Meena (Here Second is Numeral Adjective).
Adjective of Pronominal (Demonstrative, Distributive, Interrogative, Possessive Adjective): When a Pronoun is used in Adjective form before a Noun, it is called Adjective of Pronominal. Examples are below.
- He likes this picture (Here This is an Adjective of Pronominal)
- This is very yummy (Here This is Adjective of Pronominal)
What is Verb?
Without a verb, no sentence can be formed. It shows a physical or mental action. The verb is the word that means to do any action. The valid examples are given below.
- We play cricket.
- He writes a letter.
- He gave me a glass of water.
How many types of Verbs are there?
There are many types of verbs. Some are discussed below.
Finite verb: Finite verb comes as the main verb in a sentence, and it changes according to the tenses of the action and the subject. The example is below.
- Afroza works in a bank (Here Works is a Finite verb).
Non-finite verb: Non-finite verbs can never be the main verb. Non-finite verbs usually function as adjectives or adverbs in sentences but not as verbs. Non-finite verbs can’t be the main verbs. Examples are below.
- Coming home, I saw the man running away (Here coming and running are Non-finite verbs).
Action verb: Action verb naturally expresses action. Examples are below.
- I’ll do my work (Here Do is an Action verb).
- She watches TV (Here Watches is an Action verb).
Linking verb: This usually refers to those verbs that do not perform any action but connect the subject to the rest of the sentence. Generally, Be verbs are called Linking Verbs when they are used as the main verbs in a sentence. Examples are below.
- He is a teacher (Here is a Linking verb)
- They have three children (Here Have is a Linking verb)
Auxiliary Verb: This is a helping verb. They help the present participle and past participle to function as verbs in sentences. Although they have no absolute meaning of their own, they have an important role in grammatically constructing the sentence. The example is below.
- He has bought a new car. (here has is an auxiliary verb)
What is Adverb?
All words which modify or add something to a Verb, Adjective, or other adverb are called adverbs. For example, very, slowly, well, carefully, etc. The examples are given below.
- He asked my name gently.
- She walks slowly.
- She bought a very long dress.
How many types of adverbs are there?
Adverbs can be classified in different ways. These are discussed below.
Adverb of time: An adverb that describes when/at what time something happened is called an Adverb of time. It is used at the beginning or end of a sentence.
Always speak the truth. (Always is the adverb here)
Adverb of place: An adverb that refers to where something happened is called an Adverb of place. It is used after a verb, as a direct object, or at the beginning of a sentence.
I will go upstairs to see her. (Upstairs is the adverb here)
Adverb of manner: The adverb that describes how something is/is/will be is called the adverb of manner.
I tried to sing well in the program. (Well is the adverb here)
Adverb of degree: The adverb that refers to how much something has happened is called the Adverb of degree.
The work is almost done. (Almost is the adverb here)
Adverb of frequency: An adverb that refers to how often or how often something occurs is called an adverb of frequency.
I have never been to that place. (Never is the adverb here)
Negative Adverb: It tells whether something is true or false or gives importance to something.
Never tell a lie. (Never is the adverb here)
What is Preposition?
A preposition works as a connector and specifies the location or a location in time. The word Pre means before and the word Position means position. So it is very easy to understand that the words which are placed before the Noun or Pronoun and establish the relationship of that Noun or Pronoun with other parts of the sentence are called prepositions. Examples are given below.
- The book is on the table.
- Rahim is hiding behind the tree.
Looking at the 1st sentence, we can see that if we do not put any preposition before the Noun then the “The table” Noun is separated from the sentence. As soon as one is placed, it becomes attached to the sentence. In the same way, behind and from are doing the same in the rest of the sentences.
How many types of prepositions are there (Parts of Speech)?
Prepositions can be classified in different ways. These are discussed below.
Simple Preposition: The single preposition used in the sentence is called a simple preposition. An example is given below.
He was looking at me (Here At is a preposition).
Compound Preposition: The prepositions which are used to join two nouns, pronouns, or phrases are called compound prepositions.
She was asking about this matter. (About is the preposition here)
Phrase Preposition: The prepositions that indicate the relationship between the grouped words and the different parts of the sentence are called phrase prepositions.
She came here to meet me. (to is the preposition here).
Double Preposition: If two prepositions are joined to form a new proposition, it is called a double preposition.
She was not able to come here because of her illness. (Here because of the Double Preposition)
Preposition of time: The preposition that indicates the time of an action or the time relationship between the nouns of a sentence is called the preposition of time (Parts of Speech).
Try to come on Monday. ( Here On is the Preposition of time)
Preposition of place: Prepositions that indicate the location of something are called prepositions of place.
She lives in Dhanmondi (Here In is the Preposition of Place).
Preposition of direction: The preposition which points towards something or someone is called a preposition of direction.
The bird is sitting on the roof. (here On is the Preposition of direction).
Preposition for an agent: The preposition that indicates the relationship between an action and the person acting is called a preposition for an agent.
- I like to go there with you. (Here With is the Preposition for an agent)
The preposition used for Tools, Mechanism, or Gadget: These prepositions connect different nouns (instrument, musical instrument, machine, etc.) to other words in the sentence (Parts of Speech).
- She came here on foot. (On is the preposition here)
What is Conjunction?
Words that connect multiple words, sentences, or clauses are called conjunctions. Usually, conjunction joins a word with another word. That’s why it is a connector. It links words, sentences, phrases, or clauses. Examples are given below (Parts of Speech).
- Saif and Sourav are good friends. (here the two words are connected).
- kash is a boy, but Pou is a girl. (joins two clauses).
- She gave me the letter and then she quickly (joined the two clauses).
How many types are there in Conjunction?
There are mainly three types of conjunctions (Parts of Speech).
Coordinating conjunction: Coordinating conjunction usually joins words, phrases, or clauses with similar grammatical structures. The example is below.
- I will buy a pen and a book. (Joining two words And is Coordinating conjunction)
Subordinating conjunction: The conjunction that connects a subordinate/dependent clause with a main/independent clause is called a subordinating conjunction. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- Although she was ill, she came to the class. (Here Although is Subordinating conjunction)
Correlative conjunction: Pairs of words that join opposite or complementary words, phrases, or clauses are called correlative conjunctions. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- Neither you nor I will go there. (Here Neither is Correlative conjunction).
What is Interjection?
Interjection expresses strong feelings, emotions, and sudden changes of mind in a sentence. It may be sudden happiness or sadness. Interjection refers to a sudden change/expression of emotion or feeling in the mind. For example, Hurrah, Alas, Oh, Bravo, Ouch, Ah, etc. Examples are given below.
- Alas! Her father is dead.
- Hurrah! We won the game.
- Oh! What a beautiful girl she is.
How many types of Interjections are there?
There are mainly six types of interjections. These are discussed below.
Interjections for Greeting: The interjection which is used to convey a friendly feeling towards someone by addressing someone is called interjection for greeting. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- Hi! How are you doing? (Here Hi is Interjection for Greeting)
Interjections for Joy: It expresses joy or happiness due to a sudden happy event is called interjection for joy. The example is below.
- Hurray! Bangladesh won the match. (Here hurray is Interjection for Joy)
Interjections for Approval: Interjections that express strong support for something happening by the speaker are called interjections for approval. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- Bravo! Shakib has taken a wicket. (Here Bravo is Interjection for Approval)
Interjections for Surprise: An interjection that expresses intense surprise at something happening by the speaker is called an interjection for a surprise. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- What! You have done this. (Here What is Interjection for Surprise)
Interjections for Grief/Pain: An interjection that expresses intense sadness or pain due to the occurrence of a sad or painful event by the speaker is called an interjection for grief/pain. An example is below (Parts of Speech).
- Alas! He died yesterday. (Here Alas is Interjection for Grief/Pain)
Interjections for Attention: The interjection which the speaker means to draw the audience’s attention to something is called an interjection for attention. The example is below.
- Look! The singer is coming. (Here look is Interjections for Attention)
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